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Current Affairs Question 2019

  1. India has moved up two place to rank 76th on a global energy transition index.
  2. India on April 1 will launch an advanced electronic intelligence satellite – EMISAT, along with 28 other international satellites.
  3. NITI Aayog organised s day- long Fin Tech Conclave at Dr Ambedkar International Center, New Delhi.
  4. The national Capital’s Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGIA) has now become the world’s 12th busiest airport. Hartsfield-jackson Atlanta International Airport in the US was named the busiest airport in the world
  5. Online pharmacy Netmeds has acquired Health a clinic management platform providing cloud based AI-powered tools for effective doctor patient interaction for $10 million in a cash stock deal
  6. Facebook said it’s AI for India summit will be organised on march 26,2019, in Bengaluru.
  7. Vice Admiral Karambir Singh has been appointed as the next navy Chief.
  8. Tata Coffee announced the appointment of Chacko Purackal Thomas as the managing director and chief executive officer.
  9. The 64th Vimal Filmfare Awards 2019 Kicked off at the Jio Garden in BKC. Mumbai.
  10. Virat Kohali’s childhood coach Rajkumar Sharma has been appointed the head coach of the Malta national cricket team for an ICC qualifying tournament.

Current Affairs Question 2019

  1. Indian Air Force Will participate in Langkawi International Maritime Aero Expo LIMA 2019
  2. President Ram Nath Kovind Will Visit Bolivia and chine from 25th of this month to 2nd of April
  3. The government has ecxeeded its disinvestment target for the current fiscal by Rs 5000 crore, taking the total proceeds to Rs 85000 crore. This is the second highest disinvestment proceeds in a financial year after the government last fiscal mopped up a little over Rs 1 lakh crore in 2017-18.
  4. PhonePe has appointed Bollywood superstar Aamir Khan as the face of its brand. PhonePe is also an offcial co-presenting sponsor for the television broadcast of VIVO IPL 2019.
  5. World Health Organization experts said it would be irresponsible for any scientist to conduct human gene-editing studies in people, and a central registry of research plans should be set up to ensure transparency.
  6. Export and Import Bank of India (Exim Bank) signed a loan agreement on behalf of the government of USD 83.11 million to Congo for financing three solar power projects in the central Africa county
  7. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) governor Shaktikanta Das called for permanent status to finance commission RBI Governor Shaktikanta Das is also the member of the fifteenth finance commission
  8. In a first-of-its-kind bus the Delhi police inducted a mobile command and control vehicles (MCCV) with all modern equipment into service. The Bus Built by Bengalura-based firm mistral at the cost of 3.7 crore is fitted with latest equipment including Integrated Communication System (ICS), Voice logger and CCTV Surveillance among other.
  9. Neeraj Chopra to lead Indian athletics team in Asian Championship.
  10. Karnataka Municipalities Minister C S Shivalli passed away in a hospital in Hubballi he was 58.

Current Affairs Question 2019

  1. The Nation is observing shaheed Diwas of martyr’s Day on 23rd March.
  2.  Defence Ministry clears proposal to buy 10 lakh made in India hand grenades for Army.
  3. The lok Sabha passed the Indian Forest (Amendment) Bill 2017. The Bill replaces Indian Forest Amenydment Ordinance 2017 promulgated by president ram nath kovind in November 2017 and amends Indian Forest Act, 2017
  4. Union Ministry of Corporate Affairs released the national Guideline on responsible business conduct and revised the national Voluntary Guideline on social, environmental and economics responsibilities of business 2011
  5. The Reserve Bank of india (RBI) has turned down IDBI Bank’s proposal to change its name following the transfer of a controlling 51% stake to LIC insurance behemoth from the government of india
  6. State owned power finance Corporation (PFC) will acquire the entire 52.63 per cent share of the government in REC for Rs 14500 crore by the month end a move that will help the centre to meet its disinvestment target REC Limited is a public infrastructure finance company in Indian power sector.
  7. Brazilian physicist and astronomer marcelo Gleiser (60) was awarded 2019 Templeton prize worth $1.4 million for his work on blending science and spirituality
  8. india post released a special stamp cover on lce stupa in Leh at an event in the presence of Himalayan Institute of Alternative ladakh Founder sonam Wangchuk who spearheaded the Ice stupa initiative.
  9. India has Iifted south Asian Football Federation Saff women’s Championship Fifth time in a row keeping in winning streak India defeated host Nepal in the final by 3-1 in Biratnagar, nepal
  10. caption Mohan Narayan Rao samant of the Indian navy a 1971 India pakistan war hero who was honoured by Bangladesh as a Friend Of Liberation war has passed away at the age of 89.

Diversity of India

Diversity of India

India is a diverse country ‘ There is a great difference between geographical states, residents and their cultures in its various parts. Some states are dry and dry like African deserts, so some pole states are as calm as the state.

If there is excessive rainfall, then it is suddenly lacking. Seeing the residents of Tamil Nadu, Punjab and Assam together, nobody can treat them as a part of caste or culture. Different religions of the country’s inhabitants, diverse food and clothing are different in their languages ​​or dialects.

Despite this and due to the differences in this category, the whole of India is tied in the form of unity. This formula has many Vinyasas, whose roots are swollen and spread to all corners of the country. External changes and variations are physical, but the intense stream of unity flowing in the premises of Indians is emotional and distortion. This has resulted in the unity of the people.

This is the pillar of the Indian culture of India’s unity. Indian culture is very old and it is evolving with its own specialties. It has some special features, which strengthen the roots of Indian unity.

Some Character Diversity of India

  1. The stream of Indian culture has remained uninterrupted.
  2. It is a religion, philosophy, and think-tank. Here the meaning of religion is neither ‘religion’ nor ‘release’.This religion of Indian culture is a very comprehensive, liberal and a staple of truth in life.
  3. A supernatural element of Indian culture is its tolerance. Here the general meaning of tolerance is not tolerance, but the glorious tranquility is huge mood, which is above-classical and altruistic.
  4. It is not root or steady, but conscious and dynamic. It has not changed its art (not the soul) according to time, but made it highly receptive.
  5. It is not one-sided, all-round. All its sides are mature, advanced, developed and complete. There is no vacancy in it and no promiscuity.

These characteristics of Indian culture have kept this country in the form of a strong and complete emotional unity.

There was always a political unity in India. Digvijay and Digvijay and Ashwamedh and Rajasuya yagna have been symbols of India’s awakening political unity, like the Nation and Emperor, the Maharajadhiraja. Even in the Mughal period, the entire India was a powerful political unit, during the epic age, the Mauryal, the Guptak and after that period.

This is the reason why the formula for political unity in the country is not broken even after a small controversy, a major war and a widespread turmoil. Communalism, languageism, regionalism and other such elements emerged and international powers tried to break the national unity of the country with their help, but they could never succeed.

Even when the storm of war, chaos and instability was going on within the country, the subtle but strong imagination of political unity from the mind and mind of the people was not lost even for a moment. History has been witnessing that foreign powers never succeeded in governing a nation of political unity. History of India is a reinterpretation of this.

A powerful aspect of Indian culture is its religious unity. Though there may be external variations in all the religions and sects of India, but the source of all their souls is the same. Salvation, Nirvana or Kaivalya are separate names for the same destination. Although there may be a variety of rituals in Indian religions, but there is complete analogy in their original sentiment.

The vivid imagery of this religious unity and religion has given the country a wider perspective, in which the people have the infinite power to co-ordinate and connect with. Nanak, Tulsi, Buddha, Mahavir are welcome for everyone. In front of the temples of the country, mosques and gurudwaras, all bowels are; The faith of the people and the people of the four holy places of pilgrimage is the fundamental element of this cultural unity.

The strongest pillar of India’s unity is its culture. The principle of cultural harmony is visible behind the variety of living, eating, dress and festivals-festivals. The same paradigm of the sacraments (births, marriages, funeral etc. at the time of death) exists everywhere. There are visions of equal faith towards the sources of social ethics and virtue.

Man, human beings, men and women, conduct, manners, morality and the unshakable uniformity of life-forming are a strong basis for the country’s cultural unity. Interrelationships and exchanges between languages, fundamental elements of literature, permanent values ​​and fundamental creative inspirations of fine arts are all evidence of the fundamental unity of our cultural unity. All ‘truth’ is the medium of expression of ‘Shiva’ and ‘Sunderan’.

Less and less to see India’s deep and basic unity is more of an object to experience. The country is lovely to everyone. It can not be imagined how much love, love, affection and how much emotional attachment there is to people in the fields, rivers, mountains, green fields, folk songs, folk traditions and life-giving. An Indian will not have any exception in relation to these because all of this is his own.

In spite of such diversities in India, the stream of a very durable and strong unity is flowing in. There is no need for external proofs or certifications after the experience and realization of all the Indians in this regard. But even here the reference to a well-known historian like B.A. Smith would be irrelevant. He said that there is such a deep basic and firm unity in India, which is present everywhere despite the color, language, fashion, living styles and the variety of castes. Diversity of India

Types of Diversity in India

  1. Physical Diversity
  2. Racial Diversity
  3. Linguistic Diversity

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Indian Society, India Facts and india culture

Indian Society, India Facts and India culture

The subject of emotional unity is very important in the present circumstances of India. This topic is attracting the attention of the well-wishers and patriots in the country as a national problem. Indeed it is said that the future of the country, the success of all its plans and the prosperity of the future generations will be done by its citizens Depends on the emotional unity of India.

Every Indian should realize that Bharatbhumi is his motherland. The interest of each citizen here is his own interest. It is the emotional integration of Bharat Bhoomi, its rivers, mountains, animals and birds, the history, traditions, culture, and civilization of every Indian, every person should be worshiped.

Since the past, our country has been a geographical entity, but the feeling of political or administrative unity never came before the British. In this direction, the province of great emperors such as Ashoka, Samudragupta, Chandragupta, Akbar was also only partially successful. During the ancient and medieval period, the country was divided into several political and administrative units, yet it is well known that all Indian life was tied to a form of unity.

Mandakini’s flow of emotional, emotional, and cultural unity was flowing in the intervals of the external differences and inequalities of life. In the first period of the British rule, political and administrative unity was established in the country at such a broad level and it was also achieved as a succession of independent India.

For some years it has been experienced that it is very difficult to reinforce the political, economic and administrative unity of the country in the absence of emotional unity. What a strange situation, when there was no political unity in the country, there was no lack of emotional unity and when the political unity with independence was established in the country after centuries, then the tone of emotional unity was dry.

Mahatma Gandhi had long ago said while targeting this narrow trend among the various sections of the country – “What a strange time it is that Punjabi only talks about the interest of Punjab; Nobody talks about the interest of the entire country but the interests of Bengali Bengal and of Madrasian Madras. If Punjab belongs to Punjabis, Bengal is from Bengalis, Madras is of Madrasis- then who is India?

Mahatma Gandhi, who expressed concern over the narrow minds of provincialism, communalism, ethnicity, religiousness, and intolerance, has become a country-wide country and has been manifesting in various forms, due to which the future of the country has been in crisis.

He is being tired of being a victim of casteism, languageism, regionalism, and many other ‘promises’. In the west, there was a fierce dispute over the demand of Punjabi Suba and in the end, it remained. The anti-Hindi movement of the Madras state in the south was also raging, which is in front of us today as Tamil Nadu. We have seen all the three newly formed states- Uttarakhand, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh’s Eidolons.

Regarding the demands of Vidarbha, Harit Pradesh, Bodoland, Bhojpuri zone, Mithilanchal etc, there has been continuous stirring revolutions. Political parties have been born like rainy brides. Each party and organization gives a call to the unity of the country with their own stage, but it does not hesitate to adopt the path of insignificance and impatience to capture the rights.

The way the honesty, ethics, and integrity have traveled from our public life, in the same way, the feeling of admiration, reverence, and devotion towards our Mother Janmabhoomi is also going on. This is the feeling that gives seeds of mutual love, sympathy, faith, and unity in the citizens of a country.

The citizens of the country who live in front of the eyes of an entire statue of their birthplace – all their natural splendor, weapons, and gene complexes – are always in front of the eyes, the citizens of that country are confused with their feelings. And the same country can be organized on a firm basis with emotionally focused.

The basic idea of ​​emotional unity is that we feel love, sympathy, and attachment towards our country and its legislative elements. In India, this base has become weak and weak due to various reasons. By accepting their reasons as a problem or as a challenge at this time, the country has once again been repulsed to make the basic premise of emotional unity strong.

So far, many important efforts have been made in this direction and many decisions have been taken at the all India level, some of them have been implemented and some have yet to be implemented. The attention of the education ministry of the Government of India for the creation and upliftment of emotional unity in the country was first noticed on the students. The future of a country depends on its students.

If there is a seeding of emotional unity in the students there, the future of that country will be ensured because the leadership of the country is ultimately to be in their hands. Here the indiscipline of the students has come up with a questionable question in front of the government.

Many academics have published various opinions on this subject. To strengthen emotional unity among the students, the Central Education Ministry constituted a commission. Just a few years before this, the ‘whole-moon committee’ had made a number of useful suggestions by studying the whole situation closely, which the state governments had accepted.

Indian Society, India Facts and India culture.

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States and Capitals of India

States and Capitals of India

Country- India Capitals- New Delhi
Sr. No. State Name Capitals Name
1. Andhra Pradesh Amravati
2. Bihar Patna
3. Assam Dispur
4. Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar
5. Goa Panaji
6. Gujarat Gandhinagar
7. Himachal Pradesh Shimla
8. Haryana Chandigarh
9. Jammu & Kashmir Srinagar
10. Kerala Thiruvananthapuram
11. Karnataka Bengaluru
12. Madhya Pradesh Bhopal
13. Maharashtra Mumbai
14. Manipur Imphal
15. Meghalaya Shillong
16. Mizoram Aizawl
17. Nagaland kohima
18. Orissa Bhubaneswar
19. Punjab Chandigarh
20. Rajasthan Jaipur
21. Sikkim Gangtok
22. Tamil Nadu Chennai
23. Tripura Agartala
24. Uttar Pradesh Lucknow
25. West Bengal Kolkata
26. Chhattisgarh Raipur
27. Jharkhand Ranchi
28. Uttarakhand Dehradun
29. Telangana Hyderabad
Sr. No. Union Territories Capitals
1. Chandigarh Chandigarh
2. Delhi (NCT) New Delhi
3. Andaman & Nicobar Islands Port Blair
4. Dadra & Nagar Haveli Silvasa
5. Daman & Diu Daman
6. Puducherry Puducherry
7. Lakshadweep Kavaratti

President House

President House: Rashtrapati Bhawan is the official residence of the President of the Government of India. It was called Viceroy House by the year 1950. Then it used to be the residence of Governor General of India. It is located in the heart of New Delhi. There are 340 rooms in this palace and it is larger than any other President’s place in the world. The President of current India does not live in the rooms where Viceroy lived, but they live in the guest room. Shri C. Rajagopalacharya, the first Indian Governor-General of India, was found to be full of ostentation, due to his unobtrusive interest, due to which he considered it appropriate to be in the guest room. After all, all the presidents played this tradition. Here the President meets the visitor.

President House: After 25 July 2017, His Excellency Ramnath Kovind was made President of India. The Gulab Vatika of the Museum Mughal Gardens has many types of roses and that the masses open for the general purpose, every year during February. The special thing about this building is that there is a negligible use of iron in the construction of this building.

President House Design
In the year 1911, Delhi’s court was moved to transfer the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi and it was decided to move to Delhi. This decision was announced by George V on December 12. Under the scheme, the residence of the Governor General was given the rank of Chief and Superintendent. British architect Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, who was a prominent member of the town plan, was entrusted with the design of this building site. According to its original plan, something was to be made that is a mix of eastern and western style. In some people’s opinion, this palace should have been of a traditional style, which is in ancient Greek style. But this would clearly demonstrate Western power in India, which was invalid. On the other hand, many people were of the view that it is full of Indian style. Several proportions of the mixture of these two were also proposed. Then Viceroy said, that the palace would be traditional, but without the Indian sample. This was the design, which is standing in tangible form today. This palace was made in almost the same form, which Lutyens sent Baker from Shimla on June 14, 1912. Lutyens’ design was largely traditional, which was highly motivated in Indian alphabetical explanations, details, etc. Also, according to Viceroy’s order. Lutyens and Becker, who were entrusted with the task of Viceroy House and Secretariat, they worked very well in the beginning, but subsequent disputes. Baker was given the task of planning two Secretariats in front of this building. According to initial planning, Viceroy House was built on the top of Raisina Hill and the two secretariats were to lay down. Later it was decided that the Secretariat would be left behind only 400 yards and on the hill. According to the purpose of the Lutyens, this building was situated at the altitude, which had to slip behind its original plan due to the secretariat, as well as the two secretariat next to it, so that he was buried in sight. This was the reason for their dispute. On completion of this palace, Lutyens fought a good fight with Baker, because the view of the Viceroy house was interrupted due to the high angle of the road.
President House: Lutyens regarded this controversy as the status of BarkRulu (in reference to the Battle of Waterloo). But despite a lot of effort, it could not be changed. He wanted that the road should come on a long grid from the building to the bottom, so that the view of the building is not obstructed, and also from a distance view. In 1914, a committee formed with Baker and Lutyens decided that the road shade would be 1 in 25, which later became only 1 in 22. The more steep skyscrapers interfere with the cost of the building. Lutyens knew that this grill would not be able to fully show its view. Then he requested to reduce it. In 1916, the Imperial Delhi Committee canceled the offer of looting. The Lutyens still understood that Baker had more interest in making money by making the government happier and not focusing on the architectural motifs of the good class. Lutyens traveled almost every year in India and England in the twenty-two years, to build a viceroy building in both places. He had to make the size of the building many times smaller due to Lord Harding’s budget control. Although Lord Harding had instructed to reduce costs by controlling expenses He wanted, however, that there would be a certain amount of glory in the building.
President House: Indian motif

An integral part of Indian architecture on the building is small domed structure – umbrella Various Indian designs were added and added to the building. They are surrounded by spherical plates / ponds (painted), which are located on the top of the building and in which water fountains are also located, they are integral parts of Indian architecture. There are also traditional barricades, which are out of eight feet out of the wall, and are full of flowers. These buildings stop falling in the windows of direct sunlight and in the monsoon, the rain water and the shower prevents them from going. Many umbrellas built on the roof, the portion of the roof of the house, where the main dome is not made, prevents them from having a flat view. Lootians has used many Indian style samples in appropriate places, which are quite impressive. Some of these are the snake made in the garden, elephants decorated on pillars (painted) and lions (painted) sitting on small pillars. The British architect Charles Sargent Jagar, known for his many war memorials, had decorated elephants made on outer walls. Along with this, he had built complete bass relief near Jaipur pillar.

President House: The jars made of red sandstone were also inspired by Indian architecture. On the east side of the building, on the east side, there are twelve unequal pillars, which have a border of vertical lines and bake with acanthus leaves, with which the bell is made in four pendant form, which is the Indian Hindu religion Is an essential part of the temples There is a bell at each upper angle of each column. It was alleged that because these bells are calm, so the British state will not be finished in India. There is no window in front of Prasad, except for the ones made towards the edges. Lutyens have also put some personal effects in the building, such as a place in the wall of the garden and two skylight in the state hall, which seem to be like glasses. The building was mainly completed in 1929, with the rest of New Delhi, and its official inauguration took place in 1931. It is an interesting fact, that this building was completed in seventeen years and found only seventeen years in the British state. In the eighteenth year of its completion, it came to an independent India. In 1947, after the Indian independence, the then Viceroy stayed there and, finally, since the Republic of India, since 1950, the Republic of India became the President and changed its name to the Rashtrapati Bhavan. Its dome, according to the Lutyens, was described by Roman Pantheon. Although it is originally derived from the Sanchi Stupa, Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh, which was built during the Maurya period. There are also components of European and Mughal architecture. The building is completely different from other British buildings. It has 355 furnished rooms. Its land area is 2,00,000 square feet (19,000 square meters). This building has 700 million bricks and 3.5 million cubic feet (85,000 cubic meters) of stone, with minimum use of iron.

Magadh samrajye

Magadha Empire

Magadh samrajye: Various changes were seen in the time of the Vedic period from 1500 BC to 600 BC. This change was constantly moving towards progress. The governance system was becoming sensible day by day. And the ruling classes were looking for different ways to protect society. After all, the time came when after coming out of the Vedic period gradually emerging from the empire began. And the first and the great empire in the Udit empire emerged as the Magadha Empire. In the Rig Veda era, the districts emerged gradually and thereafter 16 large districts were known, which were known as 16 Mahajanapadas. 16 Mahajanapadas had their own capitals.

 

Magadh Rajgrah
Avanti Ujjaini/Mahishmati
Vajji Vaishali
Kosal Shravasti
Kashi Varanasi
Ang Champa
Mall Kushinara
Chedi Sothivati
Vats Kaushambi
Kuru Hastinapur
Matsye Virat Nagar
Panchal Ahichhatra/Kampilye
Soorsen Mathura
Gandhar Takshila
Kamboj Rajpura
Ashmak Potan

In the Bhagwati Sutra of the Buddhist texts, the ancestral body, Mahavastu, and Jainism get their information. Among these Mahajanapadas, Magadha, Kaushal, Vatsa, and Avanti were the most powerful Mahajanapadas. This Mahajanapadas always struggled for their own political domination. As a result of the conflict in these powerful states, Avanti and Magadha emerged as the largest states. But in time, Magadha established its dominance over Avanti. The discovery and use of iron made someone easy. And, iron proved to be effective in increasing yield. Business commerce reached an advanced level due to agricultural growth. And favorable business conditions contributed significantly to the spread of Magadha. Similarly, the day-to-day advancement of the system of governance advances. Eventually, Magadha was established on Magadha, which is known as Haryak Dynasty.

Bharat ka itihas

 

History Of India

Bharat ka itihas: Whatever information we get in the North Vedic period. His principal sources were Samved, Yajurveda, Atharvaveda, and Brahmanic texts. As time passed, the importance of agriculture increased during the Vedic period. Now people were living in a place to live. This was the time when regional states emerged. In this period, small people changed to the district. The most developed state of this year was Panchal. And the capital of Panchal was the capital. Answer: There was a time in the Vedic period when the use of the word ‘Nation’ is first seen. Raja’s yajna was used to anoint the king’s kingdom. And there are high officials to help him. And the North Vedic period was also the time when the oldest institution was finished.

Administration Vedik Kaal

Bharat ka itihas: In this system, the supreme ruler of justice was the king. The first tax which the king gave to the king voluntarily, he was now getting regular tax. The Varnashrama system, which was the basis of the social system, has now become hardened. Brahmin, Chhatri and Vaishish were the officials of the Upani rituals, in the same way, the fourth character was not entitled to the Shudra Upanishan rites and from here the process of assuming the Shudras to be ineligible or baseless. In the North Vedic period, there was a good increase in the use of iron tools. This is why there has been a revolutionary change in agriculture and agricultural techniques.

Social Economy

Bharat ka itihas: This time paddy and wheat were grown mainly. Answer: The people of the Vedic period were well aware of the four types of soil type. These included black and red ceramics, black-polished door burial, painted gray terracotta, and red etiquette. At the same time, the Aryans also had knowledge of the sea. However, earlier these people did not know about the sea. Just as every area was changing rapidly over time, in the same way there were some changes in religious life. Among them was the first and main convertible that in the place of Indra which was the highest deity of the world, Prajapati of creation was surrounded by the main place. And Varun is considered to be the only god of water. And the god of Shudra was replaced by Pushan. Similarly, this period ran from 1000 BC to 600 BC and gradually the Vedic period turned into an empire, in which the first Empire came out of the Magadha Empire.

Administration Vedik Kaal

Bharat ka itihas: In this system, the supreme ruler of justice was the king. The first tax which the king gave to the king voluntarily, he was now getting regular tax. The Varnashrama system, which was the basis of the social system, has now become hardened. Brahmin, Chhatri and Vaishish were the officials of the Upani rituals, in the same way, the fourth character was not entitled to the Shudra Upanishan rites and from here the process of assuming the Shudras to be ineligible or baseless. In the North Vedic period, there was a good increase in the use of iron tools. This is why there has been a revolutionary change in agriculture and agricultural techniques.


Social Economy

Bharat ka itihas: This time paddy and wheat were grown mainly. Answer: The people of the Vedic period were well aware of the four types of soil type. These included black and red ceramics, black-polished door burial, painted gray terracotta, and red etiquette. At the same time, the Aryans also had knowledge of the sea. However, earlier these people did not know about the sea. Just as every area was changing rapidly over time, in the same way, there were some changes in religious life. Among them was the first and main convertible that in the place of Indra which was the highest deity of the world, Prajapati of creation was surrounded by the main place. And Varun is considered to be the only god of water. And the god of Shudra was replaced by Pushan. Similarly, this period ran from 1000 BC to 600 BC and gradually the Vedic period turned into an empire, in which the first Empire came out of the Magadha Empire.

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi

वैदिक काल

वैदिक सभ्यता के निर्माता आर्य थे। जहां 1750 ईसा पूर्व में सिंधु सभ्यता का पतन हुआ वहीं दूसरी तरफ 1500 ईसा पूर्व में वैदिक काल का प्रारंभ हो गया।  वैदिक काल को दो भागों में बांटा जाता है। ताकि, वैदिक काल का अध्ययन करने में आसानी हो। पहला 1500 से 1000 ईसा पूर्व है। इस काल को ऋग्वेदिक काल कहा जाता है, और 1000 ईसा पूर्व से 600 ईसा पूर्व तक का समय उत्तर वैदिक काल के रूप में जाना जाता है। चलिए अब से समझते हैं कि वास्तव में वैदिक काल क्या है।

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi

  “Vedic Period Civilization in hindi” : – जैसा आप सभी जानते हैं की हड़प्पा सभ्यता 2350 से 1750  ईसा पूर्व तक चली। परंतु 1750 ईसा पूर्व में हड़प्पा सभ्यता का धीरे-धीरे पतन हो गया। यह सच कि हड़प्पा सभ्यता के पतन के ठीक-ठीक कारण किसी को पता नहीं। लेकिन, फिर भी माना जाता है कि प्राकृतिक आपदाओं के कारण लोग धीरे धीरे सिंधु घाटी सभ्यता छोड़कर जाने लगे। या, इस सभ्यता का पतन होने लगा। हम अंदाजा लगा सकते हैं

हड़प्पा सभ्यता की जगह पर जो लोग आए या हड़प्पा वासियों के बाद जो संस्कृति उभरी वही संस्कृति और समाज वैदिक समाज के नाम से जाना गया। परंतु हमें यह अच्छी तरह पता होना चाहिए, कि वैदिक समाज या वैदिक सभ्यता हड़प्पा सभ्यता से बिल्कुल अलग थी। जहां हड़प्पा में मातृसत्तात्मक समाज था उसी प्रकार वैदिक काल में पितृसत्तात्मक समाज ने जगह बना ली थी।

इस सामाजिक परवर्ती का बिल्कुल उलट जाना इस बात का सबूत है की, समाज के यह नए लोग हड़प्पा वासी तो बिल्कुल नहीं थे। क्योंकि अगर हड़प्पा वासी आर्यों में कन्वर्ट होते तो इतनी जल्दी समाज का और संस्कृतियों का पूरा का पूरा उलट जाना संभव नहीं था। इस बात से यह सिद्ध होता है कि, वैदिक काल के लोग यानी कि आर्य कहीं ना कहीं बाहर से ही आए थे। या कह सकते आर्य बाहरी आक्रमणकारी थे जो एक ऐसी जगह की तलाश में थे, जहां का मौसम अच्छा हो। जमीन खेती करने के लायक हो। और वे वहां अपना जीवन बसर कर ।

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi : इन सभी सवालों के जवाब के रूप में उन्हें वह जगह मिल गई जिसे हम हड़प्पा सभ्यता के नाम से जानते हैं। इस बात मैं इतिहासकारों के बीच खुद मतभेद है की आर्यों ने हड़प्पा वासियों पर हमला किया और उनकी जगह पर कब्जा कर लिया या हड़प्पा वासियों के पतन के बाद आर्य वहां आए। क्योंकि कुछ इतिहासकारों का मानना है कि जब तक आर्य भारत आए उस वक्त तक हड़प्पा सभ्यता का पूरी तरह से पतन हो चुका था। अब चाहे यह कहा जाए कि आर्यों से पहले सिंधु घाटी सभ्यता का पतन हो गया,

यह कहा जाय कि आर्यों ने आकर सभ्यता का पतन कर दिया। परंतु,  दो सत्य तो यही निकलेंगे की विश्व की महानतम और भारत की पहली सभ्यता का पतन हो चुका था और दूसरा यह कि आर्य बाहरी आक्रमणकारी थे। या किसी अन्य देश से आए हुए लोग थे। जो भारत में शक, कुषाण, इंडो ग्रीक, मुस्लिम शासक, मुगल, अंग्रेज, और फ्रांसीसी की तरह भारत में अपनी जगह बनाना चाहते थे। यह तथ्य इतना बड़ा तथ्य है कि बहुत सारे विद्यार्थी यह बात जान भी नहीं पाते कि भारत को आर्य शब्द या ब्राह्मण समाज व्यवस्था भारत से प्राप्त ना हो कर बाहर किसी देश से प्राप्त हुई है। अब प्रश्न यह उठता है बाहर के यह लोग कहां से आए थे जिन्होंने भारत में अपना घर बनाया और मुगलों की तरह भारत में स्थापित हुए।

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi : – अगर आर्यों का मूल स्थान की बात करें तो उसके बारे में बहुत सारे मतभेद। अलग अलग इतिहासकार अपने अलग-अलग विचार देते हैं। लेकिन जो विचार सबसे ज्यादा इतिहासकारों ने दिया है उसके हिसाब से आर्य आल्पस पर्वत के पूर्वी क्षेत्र यूरेशिया से भारत आए थे। आर्यों के बारे में जो भी जानकारी मिलती है वह जानकारी ऋग्वेद से मिलती है।

इसके अलावा कुछ अभिलेख है जो आर्यों के भारत में होने की गवाही देते हैं। जैसे, बेगज कोई अभिलेख ,या फिर इराक से मिला हुआ कसाइट अभिलेख।  ऋग्वेद कालीन जो आर्य थे वे ज्यादातर घुमंतू प्रवृत्ति के थे जो एक जगह पर घर बनाकर नहीं रहते। एक 1500 पूर्व से 1000 ईसा पूर्व तक का यह वक्त आर्यों की सभ्यता का शुरुआती दौर था। इस समय में आर्य धीरे धीरे एक जगह ठहरना सीख रहे थे। 1500 से 1000 ईसा पूर्व के वक्त की जानकारी सिर्फ ऋग्वेद से मिलती है।

 

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi : ऋग्वेद काल के आर्य सबसे पहले पंजाब और अफगानिस्तान के इलाकों में आकर बसे। ऋग्वेद के अंदर सप्त सैंधव प्रदेश का वर्णन एक ऐसी जगह के रूप में मिला है जो 7 नदियों से  तेरी हुई थी घिरी हुई थी।सात नदिया सिंधु, सतलुज, व्यास, रावी, चेनाब, झेलम, और घग्गर नदी के रूप में पहचानी गई। इसी तरह ऋग्वेद में अफगानिस्तान की 4 नदियों का उल्लेख मिलता है जिसमें पहली नदी कूभा, दूसरी नदी क्रूमू,तीसरी गोमती और अंतिम नदी सुवासतू है।

 

आर्यों की धार्मिक स्थिति

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi : यदि धर्म की बात करें तो आर्यों ने भारत को जो  धार्मिक व्यवस्था प्रदान की थी उसकी कोई ना कोई झलक भारत में आज भी देखने को मिलती है। वास्तविकता यह है कि आर्यों को स्वयं को सबसे ऊपर रखना था, इसी कारण उन्होंने एक धार्मिकथ्योरी पेश की।

आर्य के अनुसार सृष्टि के निर्माता ब्रह्मा है। ब्रह्मा के मुख से जन्म हुआ ब्राह्मण का।यही कारण है की ब्राह्मण सामाजिक ढांचे के सबसे ऊंचे हिस्से पर मौजूद है। धर्म के दूसरे हिस्से पर क्षत्रियों को बैठाया गया। यह वही लोग थे जिन्होंने ब्रह्मा की भुजाओं से जन्म लिया था। इन्हें ज्यादा नीचे की जगह देना सही नहीं था क्योंकि जब आर्य समाज किसी खतरे का सामना करता तो यह लोग सुरक्षा के काम आते थे।

समाज का तीसरा हिस्सा बने वैश्य जिन्हें व्यापारी कहा जा सकता है। यह लोग आमतौर पर पैसे वाले होते थे। और, आर्यों के अनुसार इनका जन्म ब्रह्मा की जंघा से हुआ। परंतु जो अंतिम और सबसे निचले हिस्से के लोग थे वह शूद्र हुआ करते थे। शुद्र पर हर प्रकार के शोषण को ब्राह्मणों द्वारा अनुमति प्रदान की। उन पर बहुत तरह के प्रतिबंध लगे हुए थे।

उन्हें शहर के बाहर रहकर मरे हुए जानवरों पर अपना गुजारा करना पड़ता था। यह संभव है यह लोग वो लोग थे जो उस समय पहले से भारत के निवासी हो यानी के वास्तविक भारतीय। कोई भी व्यक्ति समझ सकता है कि जब आर्य भारत में बाहर से आए और उन्होंने भारत को वर्ण व्यवस्था प्रदान की तो कोई भी व्यक्ति अपने साथ आए लोगों को या, अपने नजदीकी लोगों को वर्ण में सबसे निचले हिस्से मैं नहीं रखेगा। तो यह संभव है

आर्यों ने भारतीय लोगों को शूद्र कहां हो। और उन्हें शहर से बाहर रहकर मरे हुए जानवरों पर गुजारा करने पर विवश किया हो। यह भी संभव है के उनकी संपत्ति पर आर्यों द्वारा जबरन कब्जा किया गया हो इसी कारण इन लोगों के शहर में घुसने पर पाबंदी लगा दी गई। संभावनाएं तो बहुत सारी है परंतु एक वास्तविकता बिल्कुल साफ है भारत को वर्ण व्यवस्था आर्यों की ही देन थे, जिसके चारों तरफ पूरा वैदिक काल घूमता है। आर्य एकेश्वरवाद में विश्वास रखते थे। यह कहा जा सकता है कि उन्होंने प्राकृतिक शक्तियों का मानवीय करण करके उनकी पूजा करनी शुरू की। उनके कई देवता थे जैसे आकाश का देवता, अंतरिक्ष के देवता, और पृथ्वी के देवता।

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi : ऋग्वेद में सबसे ज्यादा लोकप्रिय देवता के रूप में इंद्र को माना जाता है। इंद्र के लिए ऋग्वेद में 250 सूक्त समर्पित है। और देवता सोम का उल्लेख 9वे मंडल में है। आर्यों के इंद्र के बाद महत्वपूर्ण देवता अग्नि थे। और अग्नि को मनुष्य और देवताओं के बीच मध्यस्थ माना जाता था। इसी प्रकार तीसरे प्रमुख देवता वरुण थे।

Indus valley civilization in Hindi

रिग वैदिक आर्यों की राजनीतिक स्थिति

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi : राजनीतिक स्थिति में सबसे छोटी इकाई कुल यानी परिवार थी।  और इसका प्रधान कुलप होता था।इसी प्रकार शासन की ऊंची इकाइयां ग्राम, विश और जन थे। इसमें विश कई ग्रामों का समूह होता था। और विश्  का प्रधान विश्पति कहलाता था।इसी तरह ग्राम का प्रधान ग्रामणि था। और बहुत सारे विश के समूहों को जन कहते थे। और जन के प्रधान को जनपति कहा जाता था।

इस व्यवस्था में जनपति यानी के राजा के चुनाव में समिति महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाती थी। इसमें विधा, समिति, गण और विदथ जैसी संस्थाओं का भी उल्लेख मिलता है। राजा की मदद करने वाले लोगों में पुरोहित, सेनानी और ग्रामीणी नाम के मुख्य अधिकारी थे। जो, राजा को शासन करने में सहायता करते और अपने सलाह मशवरे देते थे। इसी प्रकार ऋग्वेद की सबसे पुरानी संस्था विदथ थी,और इसमें लूटी हुई वस्तुओं का बंटवारा किया जाता था।रिग वैदिक काल में स्त्रियां केवल सभा में भाग ले सकती थी। और सभा मुख्य रूप से वृद्ध लोगों और कुलीन व्यक्तियों की संस्था थी।

 

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi : लोग राजा को स्वेच्छा से जो उपहार देते थे उसको बली के नाम से जाना जाता था। बली के बदले राजा प्रजा की सुरक्षा की जिम्मेदारी लेता था। ऐसा कोई साक्ष्य नहीं है जिससे सिद्ध हो कर राजा नियमित रूप से सेना रखता था। बल्कि, कबायली टोलियां राजा की ओर से लड़ाई लड़ती थी।

 

प्रारंभिक वैदिक काल में समाज की स्थिति

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi : प्रारंभिक वैदिक काल में इन लोगों का जीवन स्थाई नहीं था। इनका मुख्य पेशा कृषि था। उस समय गाय बहुत महत्वपूर्ण थी। संभव है गाय की संख्या धन की संख्या का बोध कराती थी। इस समय बढ़ाई, रथ कार, बुनकर, चर्मका,र कुम्हार और शिल्पी ओं का उल्लेख मिलता है।

 

स्त्रियों की स्थिति

Vedic Period Civilization in hindi : समाज में स्त्रियों की दशा काफी अच्छी थी। और, स्त्रियों में पुनर्विवाह, नियोग प्रथा और बहु पति विवाह का प्रचलन था। यह वही समय था जब स्त्रियों को यज्ञ करने का अधिकार था। रिग वैदिक काल में पर्दा प्रथा, सती प्रथा, और बाल विवाह का प्रचलन नहीं था।

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